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Unhappy Brain vs Happy Brain

In the Diagram you can see the Cascade effect on Dopamine levels in your Brain
RDS brain reward cascade unhappy vs happy brain

Unhappy Brain

The Brain Reward Cascade is responsible in producing Dopamine (The Happiness Molecule). If other neurotransmitters are out of balance then levels of Dopamine suffer. Excessive GABA with a low ratio of Serotonin and Endorphins will produce an unhappy behavioral state (low Dopamine levels).


Happy Brain

In order to produce correct amounts of Dopamine throughout the day it is essential to balance your neurochemistry levels.

Figure 1 (A) Schematic represents the normal physiologic state of the neurotransmitter interaction at the mesolimbic region of the brain. Briefly in terms of the "Brain Reward Cascade" first coined by Blum and Kozlowski [6]: serotonin in the hypothalamus stimulates neuronal projections of methionine enkephalin in the hypothalamus, which in turn inhibits the release of GABA in the substantia nigra thereby allowing for the normal amount of Dopamine to be released at the Nucleus Accumbens (reward site of Brain). (B) Represents hypodopaminergic function of the mesolimbic region of the brain. It is possible that the hypodopaminergic state is due to gene polymorphisms as well as environmental elements including both stress and neurotoxicity from aberrant abuse of psychoactive drugs (i.e. alcohol, heroin, cocaine, etc). Genetic variables could include serotonergic genes (serotonergic receptors [5HT2a]; serotonin transporter 5HTlPR); endorphinergic genes (mu OPRM1 gene; proenkephalin (PENK) [PENK polymorphic 3' UTR dinucleotide (CA) repeats}; GABAergic gene (GABRB3) and dopaminergic genes ( ANKKI Taq A; DRD2 C957T, DRD4 7R, COMT Val/met substation, MAO-A uVNTR, and SLC6A3 9 or 10R). Any of these genetic and or environmental impairments could result in reduced release of dopamine and or reduced number of dopaminergic receptors. Source: Blum et al (with permission)

fMRI Studies

Synaptose-Induced Normalization of Brain Dysfunction in Addicts After One Dose
fMRI scan neuroimaging studies synaptose synaptamine placebo brain dysfunction addicts


In the purple circles there is no response in terms of Dopamine reward activation (positive feelings). Notice in the pink circles a serious and intense abnormality of the putamen region (negative feelings).


In just one dose of Synaptose in the purple circles there is a strong activation of the dopamine reward site. Moreover, Synaptose induced a "normalization" of the putamen region-pink circles.

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